PAR Links and Literature

To inspire and strengthen the practice of PAR, epi's Participatory Strategies Group (PSG) [link] will update and expand a list of web resources and literature. Through joint effort, we plan to post abstracts, synopsis, critiques and practical comments by individuals in the PARnetwork [link].

A Couple PAR Weblinks to Get Started

A Selection of Literature on Participatory Research and Public Decision Making

  • Arnstein, Sherry R. 1969. A Ladder of Citizen Participation. American Institute of Planners Journal 35 (4):216-224.
  • Burdge, Rabel J. 2004. A Community Guide to Social Impact Assessment. Middleton, WI: The Social Ecology Press ISBN 0-941042-17-0 <>
  • Chambers, Robert. 1983.  Rural Development:  Putting the Last First. London: Longman.
  • Chambers, Robert. 1997. "Learning to Learn." Whose Reality Counts: Putting the First Last. Intermediate Tech Publications. 102-107.87. "Appreciative Inquiry in Organizational Life." Research in Organizational Change and Development. Volume I.  JAI Press.
  • Cooperrider, David L. and Suresh Srivastva. 1987.  "Appreciative Inquiry in Organizational Life."  Research in Organizational Change and Development. Volume I. JAI Press.
  • Fals Borda, Orlando, and Mohammad Anisur Rahman, eds. 1991. Action and Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly with Participatory Action-Research. New York: Apex Press.
  • Fals Borda, Orlando. 1998.  People’s Participation: Challenges Ahead     Bogota: Tercer Mundo, 253 pp
  • Fortmann, Lousie.  2008.  Editor.  Participatory Research in Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Doing science Together,Wiley-Blackwell
  • Freire, Paulo (1971) "A Talk by Paulo Freire" in Studies in Adult Educationno 2, Dar es Salaam, Institute for Adult Education 10pp.
  • Gardner, Katy and David Lewis. 1996. "New Directions: Practice and Change." Anthropology, Development and the Post Modern Challenge. London: Pluto Press. 123-127.
  • Gaventa, John.  1988.  “Participatory research in North America.”  Convergence  24 (2-3):  19-28. 
  • Hall, Budd.  1998.  "From Margins to Center?  The Development and Purpose of Participatory Research."  American Sociologist, Winter 1992, p. 15-28.
  • Kruger, Linda E. and Victoria E. Sturtevant.  2003.  “Divergent paradigms for community inquiry:  An argument for including participatory action research.”  Understanding Community-Forest Relations.  Kruger, Linda E., (ed).  General Technical Report PNW-GTR-566, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon.  February 2003.
  • Le Ferrand, Myriem. 2007.  The Case of Local Trail Access:  Searching for Options with Participatory Action Research. ACR Environment and Public Policy Section Quarterly. Association for Conflict Resolution.  Winter 2007.
  • Levi-Strauss, Claude.  1960.  The Scope of Anthropology.  Inaugural Lecture, Chair of Social Anthropology. College de France. January 5, 1960. Published 1967.
  • Mays, N. and C. Pope. 2000. Assessing Quality in Qualitative Research. BMJ 320(50-2). [Download from]
  • Pretty, J. et al., A Trainer's Guide for Participatory Learning and Action, IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development), London, 1995.
  • Spradley, James P. 1979. The Ethnographic Interview. Orlando: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.
  • Susskind, Lawrence and Jeffrey Cruikshank.  1987. Breaking the Impasse: Consensual Approaches to Resolving Public Disputes. Basic Books.
  • Sweetser, Anne T. 1997. "PLA: Participatory Learning and Action." Improving the Practice. International Association for Public Participation. 4Q.
  • Tandon, Rajesh (1979) A Report - Participatory Research Meeting in India, February 7-9, 1979. New Delhi, PR Network Public Enterprise Centre for Continuing Education, 11pp.
  • Wadsworth, Yolanda. 1998. "What is Participatory Action Research?"  Action Research International. Paper 2.

Note: The Institute employs the terms PAR, participatory research and participatory action research interchangeably to refer to a common set of field practices.